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HISTORY OF RAJPUTS (KSHATRIYA)

HISTORY OF RAJPUTS (KSHATRIYA)

Kshatriya  Logo (Symbol of Rajput)


Kshatriya (Sanskrit: क्षत्रिय, kṣatriya from Sanskrit: क्षत्र, kṣatra) or Kashtriya, meaning warrior, is one of the four varnas (social orders) in Hinduism. Traditionally Kshatriya/Chattaris constitute the military and ruling elite of the Vedic-Hindu social system outlined by the Vedas and the Laws of Manu.

Under the Hindu caste system, a Kshatriya is a ruler or warrior. This caste has traditionally been ranked second among the four castes of the system, and members of the Kshatriya caste have held power for centuries in India. Although the caste system has been drastically modified through legislation and social reform in India, it is not uncommon to see Kshatriyas in public office in India, since they have been associated with power and ruling for so long.

The origins of the caste system can be found in the holy texts of Hinduism, known as the vedas. According to the vedas, every citizen has a different varna, or caste. Originally, someone's varna would have been based upon actions in life, but the varnas eventually became hereditary, solidifying a rigid stratified system which endured for centuries. The caste system may have provided everyone a place in Indian society, but it did not allow for social mobility and flexibility, and many 20th century Indians considered it to be very discriminatory.

The word “Kshatriya” is derived from the words for “power” and “ruler.” Members of this caste have traditionally ruled over communities and Indian society. Ideally, a Kshatriya ruler would have been just and merciful, governing the community with inherent ruling qualities granted by his varna. It was also common for children born into the Kshatriya caste to be extensively educated in statecraft and history, to ensure that they would make sound rulers.

Kshatriya  Logo (Symbol of Rajput)


  • Etymology
In Sanskrit, it is derived from kṣatra, meaning "roof, umbrella, dominion, power, government" from a root kṣī "to rule, govern, possess". Old Persian xšaθra ("realm, power"), xšaθrya("royal"), and xšāyaθiya ("emperor") are related to it, as are the New Persian words šāh ("emperor") and šahr ("city", "realm"). The Thai word for "king", kasat, and the Malay word for "knight" or "warrior", kesatria or satria, are also derived from it. The term denotes aristocratic status.History

Initially in ancient Vedic society, this position was achieved on the merits of a person's aptitude, conduct, and nature.[citation needed] The earliest Vedic literature listed by organization of function, not of caste, the Kshatriya (holders of kṣatra, or authority) as first in rank, and the Brahmins second (priests and teachers of law), before the Vaisya (Cattle-herders, merchant-traders, farmers and some artisan castes), and the Sudra (labourers, some farming castes and other artisan castes).Manusmriti assigns cattle rearing as occupation of Vaisya, however there are references in available literature that Kshatriyas also owned and reared the cattle and cattle-wealth was mainstay of their households.Emperors of Kosala and Prince of Kasi are some of many examples.

Movements of individuals and groups from one class to another, both upward and downward, were not uncommon; a rise in status even to the rank of Kshatriya was a recognized reward for outstanding service to the rulers of the day. Over the years it became hereditary. In modern times, the Kshatriya varna includes a broad class of caste groups, differing considerably in status and function but united by their claims to ruler-ship, the pursuit of war, or the possession of land.

The legend that the Kshatriyas, with the exception of the Ikshvakus, were destroyed by Parasurama, the sixth reincarnation of Vishnu, as a punishment for their tyranny is thought by some scholars to reflect a long struggle for supremacy between priests and rulers that ended in victory for the former. By the end of the Vedic era, the Brahmins were supreme, and the Kshatriya had fallen to second place. Texts such as the Manusmṛti (a book of Hindu law) and most other dharmashastras (works of jurisprudence) report a Brahman victory, but epic texts often offer a different account, and it is likely that in social reality rulers have usually ranked first. The persistent representation of deities (especially Vishnu, Krishna, and Rama) as rulers underscores the point, as does the elaborate series of ritual roles and privileges pertaining to kings through most of Hindu history.
  • Vedic Origin
In the Rig Veda the varnas are not rigid and were related to ones actions. The Rig Veda refers to the ways in which Gods four body parts make up the four classes, depending on the nature or values that the human holds. The Brahmans were to signify spiritual and intellectual values and were to be in charge of teaching the Vedic Sanskrit, thus are made up of his head. The Kshatryas were the warriors who protected the countries and thus are made up of his arms. The Vaishyas were the farmers and merchants in the production nature and thus are made up of his belly and the Shudras were the laborers who perform menial chores of farming, labor, artisans and all the jobs required of a society and thus are made up of his legs. This was interpreted as meaning that no one caste is more important than the other and that society cannot survive without all parts working together.

According to Vedic theology , Manu is considered the law-giver and progenitor of humanity. He had over 50 sons. Manu was both king and priest and his children (and thus all of humanity) are considered highborn. Due to the eventual differences in occupations, people ended up in different jātis and castes. Those who studied the Vedas became known as Brahmins, those who practised trade became Vaishya, those who labored became Sudra, and those who took up martial arts became Kshatriyas.

According to popular myth/lore Rajputs/Thakurs came into being in 6th century AD through a of yagya done by Sage Agastya, though this might refer to Yagya done to provide regal legitimacy to certain warrior tribes. As Jats, assimilated many Surya, Chandra, Nag and Yaduvanshis into their being, same way Rajputs increased their vansh by assimilating same clans of Kshatriyas. Most Yaduvanshis became part of Jat and Rajput clans. For example, Bharatpur's Jat kingdom belong to Sri Krishna's Vrishni clan. Many Gurjar clans like Bhati got divided between Rajput, Jat and Muslims.Most of the Gurjars (or Gujjars) believe to have descended from Suryavanshi Kshatriyas (Sun Dynasty) and connect themselves with Shri Ram Chandra.]Historically, the Gurjars were Sun-worshipers and are described as devoted to the Sun-god (God Surya).Their copper-plate grants bear an emblem of the Sun and on their seals too, this symbol is depicted. Also the Gurjar title of honor is Mihirwhich means Sun.

  • Varna - Jati - Caste
There is confusion between Varna, Jati and Caste. While the term varna refers to the four broad different classes in society, the term jati refers to the different specific endogamous sections of the Hindu Society which are known as castes. Varna means "color" as well as "veil". It shows the four different ways in which the Divine Self is hidden in human beings. In the context of color people have confused it to mean race but it actually represents the distinct qualities (guna) that the four functional classes possess in their hearts and minds. The four different qualities of human beings.

If a person possessed the qualities of purity, love, faith and detachment, seek true knowledge and have a spiritual temperament, they would be represented by the color White (sattva = truthful). Those that belong to this color, belong to the Brahman class.

If a person possessed the qualities of action, will, aggression, and energy, seek honor, power, status and have a martial and political temperament, they would be represented by the color Red (rajas = energetic; the color of blood, sacrifice). Those that belong to this color belong to the Kshatriya class.If a person tried to seek communication, interchange, trade, business and possessed a commercial temperament they were represented by the color Yellow. They make up the Vaishya class.For those individual in society who love of growing crops (nature) the love of arts(shudra)(farmers and artisans) they were represented by the color Black (tamas = inert, solid). Those belonging to this color are shudras.The use of 'color' in this sense is metaphorical, however over time racialist interpretations, most notably the 'martial races' theory of the British Raj, gave way to the concept of 'heritable dharma', family castes, and the present divisions in Indian society.Panchjanya, meaning five people, is the common name given to the five most ancient Vedic kshatriya tribes. It is supposed they are all descendants of the Turvasu. They are Yadu,Sini, Puru, Anu and Druhyu. For example, Yadav is descended from the Yadu; Saini is descended from Shini and Shoorsen both of whom were Yaduvanshi kings, Paurav is descended from the Puru; etc.

  • Theories of Origin
Historians generally agree that caste became hereditary around the time of the rise of Buddhism and Jainism based on archaeological, literary, and artistic evidence of the communities that existed in India. Gautama Buddha and Mahavira are two Kshatriya sages who made a lasting impression on the world. They did not believe in the pre-eminence of the Vedas and taught to the masses, not keeping spirituality to an elite few. Ashoka Maurya became ardent follower of this faith and promoted it throughout the Mauryan empire. This resulted in the decline in status of the Brahman order.

Two camps exist about the importance of these texts. One camp is similar to the literalists of the Christian faith who believe that their holy texts are verbatim documentation of real people, events and dates and that modern society is descended from them. The other camp believes that the holy texts are not meant to be taken literally and should be used symbolically as examples of the proper way to live.

Those who believe the Mahabharata, Ramayana and Puranas were verbatim documents feel that modern Kshatriyas are descended from the Vedic Kshatriyas. The reason for the controversy is that we do not have any physical evidence of their existence. There are no bones, forts, weapons, coins, monuments, pictures etc. discovered to state unequivocally that they existed. However the clans as mentioned in Mahabharat for certain castes has existed as it is since time unknown, and provides the basis for belief in these texts.

The literalists believe that most of the Kshatriya communities descend from Surya, Chandra, or Agni. The Surya descendants claim descent from the Sun Dynasty (Suryavanshi). Rama also belonged to this dynasty, and the Suryavanshis, who trace this lineage via Rama's son, Luv) trace their linage back to him. The Chandra descendants claim descent from the Lunar Dynasty(Chandravansh). Krishna is believed to be born in this dynasty. Chandravanshi Kshtriyas consider him as an ancestor. This is mentioned in the Rig Veda and other Puranas as well as in Great epics, the Ramayana, the Mahabharata and the Raghuvaṃśa.Social status

  • Past
An 1876 engraving of Khokar Rajputs of Punjab from the Illustrated London News.In the past people looked upon Kshatriyans to protect them from all dangers. Kshatriyans were kings and warriors in the army, all soldiers knew basics of Kshatriyan martial arts. The folklore talks of some great Kshatriyans and legends. The status of Kshatriyans was clearly exalted. Legends tell that Kshatriyan could be told by sight because of his tall, strong and muscular male look. They were supposedly able to fight blindfolded and archers could hit a target by just sound in the dead of the night. Stories of exemplary courage still circulate by word of mouth and are recorded as folk-tales. Teachers of Kshatriyans never accepted non-kshatriyans, for example see the story of Ekalavya.

  • Present
Families consider it as a status symbol or a decoration to have the famous two crossed swords in a shield symbol of a Kshatriyan hung in their house. The Kshatriyan is still a great name and older generation of rural India still attach a great value to it. South Indian Kalarippayattu gurukal teach the old martial art still. The Kalarippayattu is seriously being revived but the old tradition of accepting only Kshatriyans to learn Kalarippayattu has been dropped. TheMarathas in Maharashtra and central India attach great pride and command a sense of respect among common people by their lineagewhile Rajput in Rajasthan.The situation has changed in modern times and Kshatriyas do not have much to gain or lose in status by their Kshatriya lineage. One area where the Kshatriya heritage has been prominent is the Indian Army.Kshatriya regiments make up a large portion of the Indian and Nepali Armed forces. Notable among them are Punjab Regiment, 9th, 16th and 17th Battalions of Madras Regiment (Nair), Maratha Light Infantry (Maratha), Rajputana Rifles (Mainly of Rajasthani Rajputs, Gurjars and Jats), Jat Regiment, Dogra Regiment, The Garhwal Rifles, Kumaon Regiment and Rajput Regiment.

  • Demographics
According to the 1891 Census of India, Martial Races made up more than 10% of the population of British India. This percentage might have decreased over the years. An example is that of the Nairs in Kerala who were decimated during the Mysore invasion of Kerala. Nairs constituted more than 30% of the population of Kerala during the 1854 census, but decreased to 14.41% in 1968 and further decreased to 12.88% in 2000. Frequent warfare was the main cause for demographic decline during early years, but low fertility is the main problem nowadays. (In Kerala, theMalayala Kshatriyas are having a fertility of 1.47 children per women, while the Muslims are having 2.97 children per women).

  • Specialties
The Rajputs were known to make deft political maneuvers to consolidate their kingdom or to defeat an enemy. They are also known to follow certain codes of war to fight a battle. They are recorded in history as a kind of fierce warrior clan who make brave attempts within their war codes to retrieve a lost kingdom or defeat a dangerous enemy. They are also legendarily said to have untiring persistence to attain their goal as in the case of Maharana Pratap. The rajputs are considered to be most revered and persistent Kshatriyas.Praiseful references of might and administration of the Gurjars can be found in Arab records as well as Indian inscriptions.Kupadvanj inscription of 910A.D. mentions them as Roaring Gurjar. Arabrecords say that the Gurjar king maintained numerous forces and no other Indian prince had so fine a cavalry.Arab invaders referred Gurjars as their greatest foe.

The Maratha warrior and emperor Shivaji Bhonsale, born April, 1627 (also Shrimant Rajaram Shivaji Raje Bhonsle - Chhatrapati Maharaj) had his own army specialized in guerrilla warfare and a particular tale of valor is also a historical fact. It is the tale of Sinhagad Fort. Jats employed guerilla warfare in Bharatpur, which was very close to the stronghold of Mughals. They were able to fight successfully against Mughal ruler Aurangzeb 30 km from Agra.

South India, particularly Kerala also has its own share of Kshatriyans who are better known as members of Raja-Kudumba's or royal families. They practice the worlds oldest martial art known asKalarippayattu. The Kalarippayattu has something commonly known as Marma Kalai or Varma Kalai where the Marmam is attacked which instantly disables or kills the enemy without making any externally visible injury.

  • Kshatriya Dharma
Kshatriya Dharma is the rules to be followed by a Kshatriyan to do justice to his caste and status. it still exists in more logical and evolved forms.[citation needed]Kshtariya Dharma is specifically described in the Mahabharata"Have you never heard the Kshatriya Dharma: Stand straight and never bow down, for this alone is manliness. Rather break at the knots than bend!"Symbols associated with Kshatriya

  • The Flag of Mahl Kshatriyas.
In rituals, the Nyagrodha (Ficus Indica or India Fig/Banyan tree) danda, or staff, is assigned to the Kshatriya class, and along with a mantra, intended to impart physical vitality or 'ojas'.The Nyagrodha or Banyan tree, (not to be confused with the Pipul, Ficus Religiosus or Sacred Fig), with its hanging, branch-like root-trunks which can grow to several acres, is considered symbolically equivalent to the Kshtariya. Where the Nyragrodha is fastened to the ground and supported by its downward growths, the Kshatriya is thought of as supported by the larger society 'beneath' it.[citation needed]In the Manu Smriti, or Laws of Manu, the Kshatriya caste is given the Varna (Color) red.

  • Kshatriya Lineage
Siddhartha Gautama or Gautama Buddhawas born into a Hindu Kshatriya familyThe major branches of Kshatriya varna are: Suryavanshi (solar line), claiming direct descent from Ramachandra, and descent from Surya; Chandravanshi(lunar line), claiming descent from Yadu, as Yadu was himself born in a Chandravanshi dynasty, and descent from Chandra; Agnivanshi, claiming descent from Agni; and Nagavanshi, claiming descent from the Nāgas.

  • Suryavanshi
The Suryavanshi or Solar dynasty lineage claims descent from Surya. Suryavanshis also claim descent from Rama, who was himself born into a Suryavanshi dynasty. Kshatriya of Punjab, or Khatri as they are known in the Punjabi dialect hail from this dynasty. Out of the 36 major clans of Rajastani Rajputs, 10 belong to the Suryavanshi lineage (Shekhawat, Rathore, Sisodia, Kachwaha.etc.)

  • Chandravanshi
The Chandravanshi or Lunar dynasty lineage claims descent from Chandra. Punjabi Khatri and Arora communities have certain tribes that hail from this lineage. Chandravanshis also claim descent from Yadu, who was himself born into a Chandravanshi dynasty.

  • Agnivanshi
The Agnivanshi lineage claims descent from Agni. Clans like Bhadauria, Chauhan, Parihar, Panwar & Solanki are of Agnivanshi lineage.

  • Nagvanshi
The Nāgvanshi or Serpent dynasty is a sub-clan of Suryavanshi kshatriyas. They adopted Naga as their symbol and worshipped Lord Shiva in various forms. Nāgvanshis include most of the Nair and Bunt clans as well as some Rajput (Saharan Rajputs, Bais Rajputs, Naga Rajputs, Takshak Rajputs.etc.) and Jat clans. The Nāgvanshi (or Nāgbanshi) are known for ruling Chhotanagpur. Most important among the Jat clans which are of Nāga origin includes Bachak Jats, Kaliramna Jats, and Katewa Jats.Outside India, the Balinese Kshatriyas claim descent from Nāgvanshis. In South West India, the Naga Sendraka rulers of Nayarkhanda (Nagarkhanda) were feudatories to the Chalukyas. The Sindas of Bastar were also of Nagavanshi origin.

  • Others
Velirs/Vellalars, Tamil gentry, ancient feudal landlords.Chera/Chola/Pandya, Tamil royal lineage linked to the Velir/Vellalar caste.The alien hordes that did not follow priestly customs or traditions (Shakas, Kushans, Indo-Greeks, Hunas and Parthians) were stated as Vratya Kshatriyas in Manusmriti.The Meitei of Manipur were recognized as Kshatriyas by the Bengali and Assamese Brahmins as they are thought to be the descendants of Lord Arjuna.Gurung and Magar ethnic groups are recognized as Kshatriyas in Nepal by the Bahun, along with other Kshatriya groups such as Thakore and Chhetri.Shrestha subdivision among ethnic Newar is recognized as Kshatriya in Nepal.

The Surya/Chandra Dynasty of Andhra Kshatriyas:According to sage Vyasa, the Sun comprised a thousand rays while the Moon was 'hundred rayed'. The Sun, with its potent rays, rejuvenates life. Sun worshippers, therefore, belonged to the Surya dynasty while Moon worshippers belonged to the Chandra dynasty. According to Hinduism, the whole world is enlightened by these two cosmic objects. Therefore, those who consider themselves divine belong to one of these dynasties.

Descendants of Surya and Chandra Dynasties:Kings Raghu, Dileepa and Srirama were descendants of the Surya dynasty just as the Pandavas and Kauravas of the epic Mahabharata by Veda Vyasa belonged to the Chandra dynasty.

Descendants of the Surya dynasty include kings of the Chola, Ikshwaka, Hoyasala, Kakatiya and Varnata (Karnatics) dynasties and those belonging to the Kasyapa and Koundinya gothrams. Descendents of the Chandra dynasty include the Chalukyas, Kota Vamsas and Parichedhas.

Timeline of the Andhra Kshatriya Rajya Dynasty 231 BC to 2nd century AD: The Satavahana kingdom was the first of the Andhra Kshatriyas. It was founded by King Satavahana and its capital was at Dhanyakataka, while a second was at Pratisthanapuram (Pythan).

225-300 AD: The kingdom of the Ikshwakas ruled during this period. They spread Buddhism.

3rd century AD: The Bruhatsalayanas ruled over north Andhra with their capital at Kodur in Krishna District.

335 AD to 425 AD: During this brief period, the Ananda Gothriks ruled over coastal Andhra with Kapotapuram as their capital.

300 AD to 440 AD: The Salankayana kingdom flourished during this period. This was followed by a period of glorious rule by the Vishnukundinas.

624 AD to 1062 AD: During this period, the eastern Chalukyas ruled from Vengi and had their capital at Rajamahendravaram. The famous Rajaraja Narendra belonged to this dynasty.

655 AD to 755 AD: The Badaami Chalukyas had a period of illustrious rule during this period.

641 to 773 AD: The Vemulavada Chalukyas ruled from Bodhan at this time.

965 AD to 1189 AD: A couple of centuries later, the Kalyana Chalukyas ruled over Telengana from Kolanupaka of Nalgonda District.

1000-1324 AD: The Kakatiyas of Warangal ruled during this period. They were known to be devotees of the deity Kakati.

Soon after, the Karnatas (Varnatas), descendants of Veerabhallana, a Hoyasala king ruled over Andhra and had Belur in Karnataka as their capital. They built the beautiful Chennakesava Temple.

This was followed by the reign of the Kota Vamsas who ruled over Andhra with their capital at Dharanikota. With the death of King Kota Dodda Raju in the Battle of Palnadu in 1182 AD, the Kotas dispersed into Datla, Pakalapaadu, Chintalapaadu and Jampana.

Parichedas, the desendents of Lord Pusapati, were renowned for the achievements of their ancestor, Amala Raju, known to have built the village of Pooshpaadu, Nandigama Taluq. This village was later renamed Pusapadu and the Kshatriyas living here were said to belong to the Pusapati clan. The Vijayanagara (Kalinga) rulers in the state belonged to this clan.

Over the centuries, the Kshatriyas have witnessed a lot of migration for various reasons. As a result, they adapted to the local environment, culture and customs. Today, we recognize them as the Rajus, Scindias, Solankis, Thakurs, Sinhas, Rajputs, Singhs, Rayas, Varmas and so on.

Even today, despite moving away from kingdoms and being unified under a democratic republic nation, the Kshatriyas continue to work tirelessly and selflessly without compromising their values. True, they lost their kingdoms and their riches, but they continue to hold the wealth of their rich values, helping nature and are role models to millions of people today.


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About Adamay Singh Parmar Rajput

Adamay Singh Parmar is a part time blogger.He is 14 years old boy.He is studying in MHS DAV Cent.Public school Akhnoor.He loves to write about rajputs and rajputana.He is really very passionate about his work.
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25 comments:

  1. The Rajus ( Telugu speaking Kshatriyas) claim that they are descendants of Four Dynasties that ruled the Telugu land.
    These 4 Dynasties are ( have origins of further old royal families):
    a) PARICHEDIS ( Guhila , Vishnukundin Clan )
    b) KOTA/ DHARANI KOTA ( Kubja Vishnuvardhana , Eastern Chalukya Clan )
    c) KAKATI/KAKATIYA ( Karikala Chola, Kakati Prola Raju Clan).
    d) VARNATA ( Aditya chola, Varnata Rajendra Chola/Rajendra Choda Clan).
    Information available on this topic in Telugu book " Andhra Samsthanamulu - Sahitya Poshana" published by Andhra University. This book was published form of Ph.D thesis submitted by Dr. Thoomati Donappa ( Former Vice Chancellor of Telugu University).
    Another reference book on this subject is " Sri Andhra Kshatriya Vamsa Ratnakaram" by Budharaju Varahalaraju.
    Another language book ' KSHATRIYANVAYAMANJUSHA' by Sri. Duvvuri Jagannadha Sharma

    AFTER FALL OF THESE DYNASTIES, THE RAJUS EMERGED AS ZAMINDARS :

    o Charmahal / Mogalthur (West Godavari) : Kalidindi ( Koundinya Gothra)
    o Golugonda : Bhupathiraju clan ( Dhananjaya Gothra)
    o Karvetinagar ( Chittoor District near Tirupati)
    o Kota Uratla-Thangedu ( East Godavari) : Saagi / Sagi ( Vashishta Gothra)
    o Ongole : Mandapati ( Kashyapa Gothra)
    o Padmanabham : Saagi/ Sagi clan (Vashishta Gothra)
    o Peddapuram : Vatsavayi / Vatsavaya ( Vashishta Gothra)
    o Rajamundry : Pusapati /Poospati (Vashishta Gothra)
    o Ramachandrapuram ( Kota Ramachandra Puram) : Kakarlapudi ( Vashishta Gothra)
    o Tanuku ( West Godavari) : Uppalapati ( Kasyapa gothra ),but later this zamindari was trasferred to Mullapudi ( Kamma caste) family.
    o TUNI , East Godavari : Dantuluri ( Dhananjaya Gothra)
    o Vizianagaram : Pusapati / Poosapti ( Vashishta Gothra)
    o Thettu ( Nellore district) : Vezendla/ Vejella ( Vashishta Gothra)
    o Thoyyeru ,Koppuram : Nallaparaju ( Dhananjaya gothra).


    ReplyDelete

  2. REFERRENCES ON RAJUS ( The Telugu speaking Kshatriyas)

    " Those who claim themselves to be Kshatriyas are in fact known by local names, in the Punjab - the Khatris; in Bihar,U.P.,Rajashtna and madhya Pradesh - The Rajputs or the Thakurs; and in Andhra Pradesh the Rajus"
    - Page Nos. 239,240 A social history of India by S.N.sadasivan. Published by APH Publishing.
    ------------------------
    ." The Rāzus, Mr. Stuart writes further, ...... .. As a class they are the handsomest and best developed men in the country, and differ so much in feature and build from other Hindus that they may usually be distinguished at a glance"
    - source : 'Castes and Tribes of Southern India' by Edgar Thuston
    -----------------------
    Sri V. Ramachandra Rao's article "A Brief note on the RAJU community of Andhra Pradesh" is available on the net.
    which provides good info. on the Raju community.
    -----------------------

    ReplyDelete
  3. Amaravati was part of 'Dharanikota' kingdom. It was first ruled by Satavahanas and also was ruled by 'Kota Kings / Kota Chiefs' who were Rajus ( Telugu Kshatriyas ) of Dhanunjaya Gothra. According to Wikipedia the country on the southern bank of Krishna river was ruled by these Dhanunja gotra kings as a defecto independent power for over 150 years beginning of the 12th century to the last quarter of the 13th century .
    Kota Chiefs had marital relations with Kakatiya kings.
    Kota Hariseema Krishna was a Popular King among Kota Kings. Other kings were Bhima Raju, Keta Raju, Rudraraju, Dantuluri Gannabupaludu. Telugu poet Srinadhudu dedicated his literary work " Dhananjaya Vijayamu' to the King Dantuluri Gannabhupaludu. It was also seen that Telugu poet Mangalagiri Ananda Kavi dedicated his literary work " Vijayananda Vilasamu" to Datla Venkatrama Nrupudu ( Datla venkatrama Raju) of Kota lineage. Present Rajus / Dhananjaya Gotra Rajus of surnames Dantuluri ( Tuni Zamindars of this surname), Nallaparaju Zamindars, Datla, Dandu, Rudraraju, Bhupatiraju, Penmetsa andother surnames of Dhananjaya gotra Rajus are descendants of this dynasty.

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  4. VIJAYAWADA HISTORY
    Bezawada ( Modern day Viajayawada) was ruled by Parchchedi Dynasty of Vishnukundin lineage.
    Parichchedis ( Vishnukindin lineage) are Raju ( Telugu Speaking Kshatriyas) of 'Vashishta' Gothra.
    Information available on this topic in Telugu book " Andhra Samsthanamulu - Sahitya Poshana" published by Andhra University. This book was published form of Ph.D thesis submitted by Dr. Thoomati Donappa ( Former Vice Chancellor of Telugu University).
    Another reference book on this subject is " Sri Andhra Kshatriya Vamsa Ratnakaram" by Budharaju Varahalaraju.
    Extract from a Telugu language book ' KSHATRIYANVAYAMANJUSHA' by Sri. Duvvuri Jagannadha Sharma

    INFORMATION / SOME REFERENCES

    PARICHCHEDIS ( ' Vashishta' is their Gothram/ Gothra ) :
    రాజప్రవర :- రఘులవ గుహిల మహారాజ ప్రవరాన్విత పరిచ్చేది శ్రీ దేవవర్మ మహారాజ వంశ:

    " Vijayawada history reveals that Bezawada (Vijayawada) was ruled by King Madhava Varma (Ancestor of Pusapatis of Vizianagaram)". source : wikipedia
    LINK : wiki/ Vijayawada

    PARICHCHEDI DYNASTY
    "The Maha Parichchedis belonging to Vashishta gotra mentioned as one of the four important sects among Rachavaru - Andhra Kshatriyas even to this day"
    - page 187 'History of Andhra Country' 1000AD-1500AD by Yashoda Devi. Book published by Gyan Publishing House.
    • No. 45. (A.R. No. 491 of 1906.) Pulivendla, Pulivendla Taluk, Cuddapah District. On a slab set up at the entrance of the Ranganathasvamin temple. Krishnaraya, AD 1509. This is dated Saka 1431, Sukla, Kartika su. 12, Monday, corresponding to AD 1509, 24 October, which was, however, Wednesday and not Monday. It records a gift of the village Kunddal Kundu to the god Sri Ranga Raju of Pulivindla by Narasayya Deva Maharaju, brother of Basava Raju, son of Tamma Raju, grandson of Valla Bharaya and great-grandson of Bejawada Madhava Varma of Vasishtha-gotra and Surya-vamsa. The gift village is said to be situated in Pulivindalasthala, a subdivision of Mulkinadu in Gandhi Kotasima of Udayagiri Rajya.
    - INCRIPTION No. 45 ( A.R.No.491 of 1906)

    Vizianagaram 'Poosapati ( Pusapati)' Rulers are direct descendants of the King Madhava Varma.
    Peddapuram ( East Godavari) 'Vatsavayi' Kings, Gudimetta ' Chagi ( Saagi) ' rulers,Kota Ramachandrapuram (Near Kakinada) 'Kakarlapudi' Zamindars,Thettu ( Nellore district) 'Vejendla ( Vezella)' Zamindars , Anakaplle (Vizag) Saagi/ Sagi rulers ( Payakarao was their title)belong to this clan only.
    FREEDOM FIGHTER ALLURI SEETHARAMA RAJU also belonged to this Clan/gothra.

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  5. Interesting website. The Nairs of Kerala are like the Samurai of Japan.It was mandatory for Nair warriors to practice the ancient art of kalaripayattu (the mother of all oriental martial arts like Karate). The Nair army of Travancore is credited as being the first Indian outfit that defeated a European army in battle ( The battle of Colachel). Also, the Nair army of Kottayam engaged the British East India company in what is regarded as one of the the longest and bloodiest war the British fought in India - the Cotiote War. In the early nineteenth century, the British banned the Nairs from carrying weapons and practising kalaripayattu after several uprisings that gave them a bloody nose!

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  6. The Nairs are a Nagavanshi Kshatriyas. Almost all Nair families have temples dedicated to the Nagas, known as 'Sarpakavvu'. It is customary for the various clans to perform a grand annual Pooja ( worship)

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  7. Interesting website. The Nairs of Kerala are like the Samurai of Japan.It was mandatory for Nair warriors to practice the ancient art of kalaripayattu (the mother of all oriental martial arts like Karate). The Nair army of Travancore is credited as being the first Indian outfit that defeated a European army in battle ( The battle of Colachel). Also, the Nair army of Kottayam engaged the British East India company in what is regarded as one of the the longest and bloodiest war the British fought in India - the Cotiote War. In the early nineteenth century, the British banned the Nairs from carrying weapons and practising kalaripayattu after several uprisings that gave them a bloody nose!

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  8. Velirs/Vellalars, Tamil gentry, ancient feudal landlords.Chera/Chola/Pandya, Tamil royal lineage linked to the Velir/Vellalar caste.////////////// No it's Wrong vellalars are shudras...... Tamil Nadu kshatriyas are Vanniya kula kshatriyas (Agnikula kshatriyas) now i post our decendents details

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  9. The Great Vanniya Kula Kshatriya Of TamilNadu (south indian Rajputs)
    Origin:

    The name Vanniyar is derived from the Tamil word 'Vanmai' which means valor. Agni,the God of Fire is connected with Regal office,as kings hold in their hands the fire wheel or Agneya chakra. The Vanniyars of South India considered as a representative of the Non-Aryan,a Dravidian Rajput Element. In Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka Vanniars while referring their caste in circumstances and rituals, subtitle with the phrase 'Agnivanshi' denoting their clan.
    At Sirkazhi Vaideeswaran Temple Inscriptions about Vanniyar Puranam are seen. It denotes that,at ancient times there is two asuras known as Vatapi and Mahi, worshipped Brahma and obtained immunity from Death and subsequently they garrisoned the Earth. Jambuva Mahamuni,performed a Yagam,or sacrifice by power.soon Armed Horse men sprung from the flames,undertook twelve expeditions against them and destroyed them. Their leader then assumed the government of the country under the name Rudra Vanniya Maharaja,who had five sons,the Ancestors of Vanniya Caste. This Tradition alludes to the destruction of the city of Vatapi by Narasimhavarman,the king of Pallis or Pallavas.
    In the Classical tamil poem Kalladam,which has been attributed to the time of Thiruvalluvar,the author of the sacred Kural,Vanni is used in the sense of King. Kamban, the author of Tamil Ramayana,uses it in a similar sense.
    The vanniyans of agnikula race, can be classified as Ruthra Vanniyar, Agni Vanniyar, Sambu vanniyar, Brahma vanniyar, and Indra Vanniyar.

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  10. Historical references

    The Titles," Indicating Authority,Bravery and Superiority," assumed by them are Nayakar,Varma,Padaiyachi (Head of an Army), Kandar, Chera, Chola, Pandya, Sambuvarays, Kadavarayas, Kalingarayas, Mazhavarayas, Samattiyars, Udaiyars, Kondiyars, Nainars, Sozhaganars, Munaiarayas and Kachirayas,Goundan and Kavandan. Some say that they belong to Chola race,and that, as such, they should be called as Chembians. They also bear the Sozhaganars title indicating their chola origin.
    The Zamindars of Pichavaram, UdayarPalayam, Ariyalur, M Parur, Thiruvidaichuram, Manimangalam and Sivagiri are all Vanniya By Caste.
    In North East Sri Lanka,Triconamalee are ruled by Vanniyans and Vanniyachi's.
    A well known verse of Irattayar in praise of Kanchipuram Ekambaranathaswmi refers to the Pallava King as being of the Sambu Race. The latter Descendants of the Pallava apparently tookc Sambuvarayar and Kadavarayar Titles.

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  11. History

    - From 240 AD to 943 AD - Pallava Empire
    - From 943 AD to 1313 AD - Chola Empire
    - From 1278 AD to 1456 AD - Kandavas, Sambuvarayar, Kadavarayar dynasty
    - From 1456 AD to 1798 AD - Kalingarayar, Naicker Dynasty as poligar, chiefians under feudral rule of vijiyanagar empire and arcot nawab
    - From 1798 AD to 1947 AD - British Rule, but most of the villages & towns are under the direct rule of Vanniar Gounder, Naicker, Reddiar and Padayachi zamindars. - - From 1947 AD to still date - Tamil Nadu Toilers Party, Common Wheel Party and PMK dominate parts of North Tamil Nadu in electoral junctions

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  12. Caste titles

    The Vanniyars were known as Vanniakula Kshatriyas and Padayatchis. Depending upon the status, the members of the Vanniyar caste use titles such as Padayatchi, Gounder, Naicker/Nayagar, Kander/Kandar, Palli in Tamil Nadu, in Karnataka they are called Tigala or Thigilaru with a common suffix of Gowda and Nayakar. In Andhra Pradesh, Vanniars are usually known as Pillai, Agnikula, Kshatriya, Vanne Kapu or Naik. There are 92 different names or sub caste/sub titles given for Vanniya Kula Kshatriyas. This can be seen in the book written by A.K.Natarajan of Vanniyar sangam. The sub caste like Gounder, Naicker, Kandar, Padaiyaachi, Raju, Palli e.t.c.

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  13. Demographic spread

    Vanniyars live in an area where three South Indian states intersects. They currently predominate in northern Tamil Nadu)whereas sizable numbers are found in southern Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka. In these latter Indian states they are in sizeable mass primarily due to migration of other sects from outside and vice versa.
    In terms of population they are the most populated community in Tamil Nadu (Both as Vanniars) and Pondichery.

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  14. Important cities

    Important cities are Chennai,Chengalpattu, Kancheepuram, Bangalore, Kolar, Salem, Thiruchirapalli, Thanjavur, Kumbakonam, Vellore, Cuddalore, Virudhachalam, Thiruvannamalai, Dharmapuri, Krishnagiri, Villupuram, Tindivanam, Gingee, Nellore, Thirupathi, Jayankondam, Pondicherry,Mayiladuthurai,Vedaranyam ,Ariyalur and Nagapattinam.

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  15. Vanniyar in Sri Lanka

    Main article: Vanniar (Sri Lanka)
    Vanniar or Vannia is a title of a feudal chief in medieval Sri Lanka who ruled as a tribute payer to any number of local kingdoms. It was also recored as that of a name of a caste amongst Sri Lankan Tamils iin the Vanni District of northern Sri Lanka during the early 1900’s. It is no longer used as a name of a caste or as chiefs in Sri Lanka. There are number of origin theories for the feudal chiefs as well as the caste as coming from modern Tamil Nadu state or as an indigenous formation. (see Pandara Vannian)

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  16. Vanniyar outside India

    Vanniyar also migrated to South Africa, Malaysia, Singapore, Seychelles, Mauritius and Fiji as part of the great Tamil diaspora. Variant Vanniyar titles such as Govendar, Naicker and Padayachee are used amongst their descendants.

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  17. Dear sir,
    There are few communities in coastal regions of karnataka, Goa called RAMAKSHATRIYA community. they have sub groups like shervegar, sherugar, koteyar etc.. please reply to this, give some more informations.

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  18. SO funny I see here some of Telugu origin cast Rajus and Nair from Kerala claim as kshathriya... hahahah it is very simple to identify the real kshathriya, that who is still practice Agni Purana like agnivansi Rajput from north India is a only cast is a real kshathriya of south India, that is the one and only vanniyar kula kshathriya which means fire race kahsthriya same exact name of Agni vanish, vanniya kula kshathriya also called agnikula kshathriya in AndraPradesh, thee (fire) kula kshathriya in Karnataka, and Varma in Kerala, palli kula kshathriya in Orissa, also naga kshathriya called as naga palliative in tamilnadu, palli means king, pallava, Cholan, Pandiya,cher, chalukya where called them self as palli kulam. And we 4 state kshathriya still keep linked our royal community. So please sudras u must not create fake history about ur self.

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  19. I see here all sudras where provided after 15th centuries inscription s only, why don't u provide before 15 AD evidence sudras? Because you have nothing to show as you are kshathriya in before 15th AD. We know the history very well how this sudras took ruling power because of vijainagara empire kriahna devaraya, he is the one who hire sudras for his army. Then after vijainagara falling this sudras took power and keep continued still today.

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    Replies
    1. Hello Surendhar sir,
      Can I get some more informations about Kshatriya residing in south India. Mainly in coastal regions of Karnataka and Goa. What is there origin, did they originated from north INDIA. (Especially RAMAKSHATRIYA community. )

      Please sir reply. I need it sir. PLEASE.

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  20. Palli or vanniyakul are untouchable fisherman of southindia, they with politiking changed there caste to vanniyakul as did barbers of southindia to nayabrahmins, untouchable of southindia changed there costes names and added either brahmin or kshatriya tags

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  21. This comment has been removed by the author.

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  22. Suryavansi raju kshatriyas are one of The branchs of sisodia clan of mewar , refer to coat of arms of mewar, The present civil aviation minister pusapati ashoka gagapati raju is from this clan

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    Replies
    1. https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pusapati_Ananda_Gajapati_Raju

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