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MOST FAMOUS PERSONALITIES OF RAJPUTANA

Famous Rajput Personalities

Bappa rawal

Bappa Raval is known for his strong pride in his Dharma and culture, for defeating the alien Arabian invaders and being a great, glorious and brave king. Bappa Ravala The founder of the Guhilot Rajavansa ( dynasty of rulers ) in Rajasthan, Bappa Raval is known for his strong pride in his Dharma and culture, for defeating the alien Arabian invaders and being a great, glorious and brave king. He started as a ruler of a small principality in Nagahrad ( Nagda ), and extended his rulership up to Chittaud.



Bappa Rawal, born Prince Kalbhoj, was the 8th ruler of the Guhilot dynasty. He founded the state of Mewar (c.734) in present-day Rajasthan, India. Bappa Rawal obtained Chittor in dowry from Maan Mori.

Bappa was also blessed by Harita, a sage of the Mewar region, with kingship. He based the capital of Mewar in the fortress city of Chittor. In order to face of Muslim invasions across the western borders of Rajputana, Bappa united the smaller states of Ajmer and Jaisalmer to repel the invaders. During the next 800 years, Chittor becomes the symbol of Hindu resistance in western India.

In 39th century of Kaliyuga (i.e 8th century A.D.). Muslims started attacking India within a few decades of the birth of Islam. Bappa Raval fought and defeated the Arab invaders in the country and also turned the tide against them and dominated the aliens in their own territory. For a few hundred years they had no success. Bin Qasim was able to defeat Dahir in Sindh but was routed by Bappa Rawal. Qasim attacked Chittore, which was ruled by Mori Rajputs, via Mathura. Bappa, of guhilote dynasty, was a commander in Mori army and so was Dahir's son. Bappa defeated and pursued Bin Qasim through Saurashtra and back to Sindh. After this resounding defeat of the caliphate at the hands of Bappa, for next few hundred years there were no more Islamic incursions into India. (note Muslim historians rarely recorded the defeats of there kings)

Ruling thus oyer his kingdom fora long time he abdicated the throne in favour of his son - rather made his son as the king and himself turned into Siva upasaka ( worshipper of Shiva ) and became a Yati ( an ascetic who has full control over his passions ).

He had been extant in Kaliyuga's 39th (i.e. 5thA.D.) century.



Rana Kumbha

Rana Kumbha [Maharana Kumbhakarna] was the ruler of Mewar, a state in western India, between AD 1433 and 1468. He was a Rajput belonging to the Sisodia clan. Kumbha was a son of Rana Mokal of Mewar by his wife Sobhagya Devi, a daughter of Jaitmal Sankhla, the Parmara fief-holder of Runkot in the state of Marwar. Rana Kumbha was the vanguard of the fifteenth century Rajput resurgence.

After being overrun by the armies of Alauddin Khilji at the turn of the 13th century, Mewar had become relatively insignificant. Rana Hammira is credited with casting off the Muslim yoke and establishing the second Guhila dynasty of Chittor in 1335. The title Rana and later Maharana was used by rulers of this dynasty. Rana Hammira's grandson, Maharana Mokal was assassinated by his brothers (Chacha and Mera) in 1433. Lack of support, however, caused Chacha and Mera to flee and Rana Kumbha ascended the throne of Mewar. Initially, Rana Kumbha was ably assisted by Ranmal (Ranamalla) Rathore of Mandore. With the passing of time, however, Rana Kumbha wearied of Ranmal's hold on power and in 1438, had him assassinated. In November 1442, Mahmud Khalji (Khilji), Sultan of Malwa, commenced a series of attacks on Mewar. After capturing Machhindargarh, Pangarh and Chaumuha, the Sultan camped for the rainy season. On April 26, 1443, Rana Kumbha attacked the Sultan's encampment, following an indecisive battle the Sultan returned to Mandu. The Sultan attacked again in November 1443, capturing Gagraun and adjoining forts but the capture of Chittor eluded him. The next attack was on Mandalgarh (in October 1446) and was also unsuccessful. Perhaps bloodied by these engagements, the Sultan did not attack Mewar for another ten years. The famed 37-meter, 9-story Vijay -Stambha of Chittorgarh was built in 1458 to commemorate his resounding victory over the combined armies of Malwa and Gujarat (1540). Ahmad Shah (ruler of Gujarat), and Muhammad Shah (ruler of Delhi) cooperated with Rana Kumbha to combat Mahmud Khalji. During this period, the rulers of Delhi and Gujarat conferred on Rana Kumbha the title of Hindu-suratrana. Rana Kumbha was the first Hindu ruler to be given this accolade by the Muslim Sultans.

Capture of Nagaur and reaction of the sultans The ruler of Nagaur, Firuz(Firoz) Khan died around 1453-1454. This set into motion a series of events which tested Kumbha's mettle as a warrior. Shams Khan (the son of Firuz Khan) initially sought the help of Rana Kumbha against his uncle Mujahid Khan, who had occupied the throne. After becoming the ruler, Shams Khan, refused to weaken his defenses, and sought the help of Qutbuddin, the Sultan of Gujarat (Ahmad Shah died in 1442). Angered by this, Kumbha captured Nagaur in 1456, and also Kasili, Khandela and Sakambhari. In reaction to this, Qutbuddin captured Sirohi and attacked Kumbhalmer. Mahmud Khilji and Qutbuddin then reached an agreement (treaty of Champaner) to attack Mewar and divide the spoils. Qutbuddin captured Abu, was unable to capture Kumbhalmer, and his advance towards Chittor was also blocked. Mahmud Khalji captured Ajmer and in December 1456, conquered Mandalgarh. Taking advantage of Kumbha's preoccupation, Rao Jodha (the son of Ranmal Rathore) captured Mandore. It is a tribute to Rana Kumbha's skills that he was able to defend his kingdom against this multi-directional attack. The death of Qutbuddin in 1458, and hostilities between Mahmud Begara (the new ruler of Gujarat) and Mahmud Khalji finally brought relief to Rana Kumbha. Mahmud Khalji's last sally against Mewar was in 1458-1459.

Construction of fortsKumbha is credited with having worked assiduously to build up the state again. Of 84 fortresses that form the defense of Mewar, 32 were erected by Kumbha. Inferior only to Chittor, the chief citadel of Mewar, is the fort of Kumbhalgarh, built by Kumbha. It is the highest fort in Rajasthan (MRL 1075m).

Cultural achievementsAmongst Rajput rulers, the flowering of arts and culture during Kumbha's reign is exceeded only by Bhoja Parmara (Bhoja I). Maharana Kumbha is credited with writing the Samgita-raja, the Rasika-priya commentary on the Gitagovinda, the Sudaprabandha, and the Kamaraja-ratisara. No copies of the Sangita-ratnakara and Sangita-krama-dipaka (two books on music by Rana Kumbha) have survived. During Rana Kumbha's reign, the scholar Atri and his son Mahesa wrote the prashasti (edict) of the Chittor Kirti-stambha and Kahana Vyasa wrote the Ekalinga-mahamatya. Vijay Stambha Rana Kumbha commissioned the construction of an imposing, 37 meter high, 9 story Victory Tower at Chittor. The tower called Vijay Stambha (victory tower) was completed in 1458. It is also referred to as Vishnu Stambha -- "Tower of Vishnu" in other texts. The tower is covered with exquisite sculptures of Hindu Gods and Goddesses and depicts episodes from the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. Architecture In addition to the Vijay Stambha of Chittor, the Ranakpur Trailokya-dipaka Jain temple with its adornments, the Kumbhasvami and Adivarsha temples of Chittor and the Shantinatha Jain temple are some (of many) structures built during Rana Kumbha's rule. There are many inscriptions on the Stambh from the time of Maharana Kumbha.

Verse 17: Kumbha is like the mountain Sumeru for the churning of the sea of Malwa. He humbled its king Muhammad.

Verse 20: He also destroyed other lowly Muslim rulers (of the neighborhood). He uprooted Nagaur.

Verse 21: He rescued twelve lakh cows from the Muslim possession and converted Nagaur into a safe pasture for them. He brought Nagaur under the control of the Brahmanas and secured cows and Brahmanas in this land.

Verse 22: Nagaur was centre of the Muslims. Kumbha uprooted this tree of evil. Its branches and leaves were automatically destroyed.



Prithivi Raj Chauhan

Prithviraj Chauhan (c. 1168-1192) Prithviraj Chauhan was a king of the Rajput Chauhan (Chauhamana) Rajput dynasty, who ruled a kingdom in northern India during the latter half of the 12th century.

Prithviraj Chauhan was the second last Hindu king to sit upon the throne of Delhi (the last Hindu king being Hemu, who managed to sit on the throne of Delhi for a few days after Humayun's death.

He succeeded to the throne c. 1179, while still a minor, and ruled from the twin capitals of Ajmer and Delhi. His elopement with Samyukta, the daughter of Jai Chandra, the Gahadvala king of Kannauj, is a popular romantic tale in India, and is one of the subjects of the Prithviraj Raso, an epic poem composed by Prithviraj's court poet, Chand Bardai. Qila Rai Pithora in Delhi, also known as Pithoragarh, is named after him.

After his unfortunate defeat in 1192 AD at the second Battle of Tarain, India was open to invasion by Muslim invaders, and Delhi came under the control of the Muslim rulers, and continued to be so, until the British period.

First Battle of Tarain (1191 CE) Muhammad Ghori invaded Prithviraj's domains and laid siege to the fortress of Bhatinda in Punjab, which was at the frontier between the two kingdoms. Prithviraj's appeal for help from his father-in-law was scornfully rejected by the haughty Jaichandra. Undaunted, Prithviraj marched on Bhatinda and gave battle to the invaders at a place called Tarain near the town of Thanesar.

In face of the Rajput onslaught, the invading Muslim army broke ranks and fled, leaving their leader, Muhammad Ghori, a prisoner in Prithviraj's hands. Muhammad Ghori was brought in chains to Qila Rai Pithora, Prithviraj's capital. He begged his captor for mercy and release. Prithviraj's ministers advised against pardoning the aggressor. However, the chivalrous and valiant Prithviraj thought otherwise and respectfully and magnanimously released the vanquished Ghori. Some say that Prithviraj actually pardoned him 16 times over 16 encounters.[citation needed]


Second Battle of Tarain (1192 CE) The very next year, Ghori repaid Prithviraj's gesture. In 1192 AD he again invaded India with a huge army of 1,20, 000 armed men. Both the armies faced each other again at Tarain. Prithviraj had the support of his feudal chiefs but these were only small princes. No powerful ruler extended his support to him even at this critical juncture. Thus, for all practical purposes he had to face the enemy single handed. Again, the two armies met at Tarain. The Hindus followed a traditional practice of battling only between sunrise and sunset. This practise was based upon great epics and ethics in their civilized society. The Ramayana and the Mahabharata support this practise. Ghori as advised by Moinuddin Chishti attacked the surprised Rajput army before daybreak and thus emerged victorious. At the point when annihilation became certain, Sanyogita committed Jauhar {suicide} for self-immolation rather than face the prospect of personal dishonour at the hands of a barbaric invader. Prithviraj was taken in chains to Ghor in present-day Afghanistan.



Rao Maldeo Rathore

Humayun, Babur's son was defeated by Sher Shah Suri, a Pathan. Humayun was forced to leave India and he took refuge with Safavid king of Persia. Sher Shah became ruler of Delhi. The Sesodias of Mewar had not yet recovered from Rana Sanga's treacherous defeat. In Marwar the Rathores were becoming very powerful. The Rathore king Rao Maldeo had extended his territory to within a couple of hundred kilometers of Delhi.

Sher Shah attacked Maldeo. Maldeo came with a force of 40 thousand and Sher Shah had 60 thousand. In the evening Sher Shah sent forged letters to Maldeo's camp. In these letters it was stated that few generals from Maldeo's army were buying arms from Sher Shah's army. This caused great consternation in Maldeo who thought there was treachery and that some of his generals had crossed over to Sher Shah. Maldeo left with 20 thousand men. In reality there was no treachery. Later when Maldeo's generals Kumpa (his progeny are Kumpawat Rathores) and Jaita (his progeny are Jaitawat Rathores) found out what happened they did not loose cool and decided they would not leave the field even though they just had 20 thousand men and had to face 60 thousand Pathans of Sher Shah.

Finally battle of Sammel was fought on a cold morning of January 5th 1544 A.D. and Sher Shah was shocked by what he saw. Sher Shah's top generals lost there lives and his army suffered heavy losses. After this Sher Shah commented that "for a few grains of bajra [a grain crop that grows in Marwar] he had almost lost the entire kingdom of India". It is a moot point now but had Maldeo not retreated because of the fake letter, Rathores/Rajputs would have defeated Sher Shah.



Rana Hamir

Ranathambhor's VENERABLE structure, rapturous beauty and sublime expressiveness seem to be continuously vocalizing the great legends of Hamir Dev, the Rajput king. Seventeen kilometers from Sawaimadhopur stands a fort, encompassing in its stately walls, a glorious history of the Rajputs. Ranathambhor's venerable structure, rapturous beauty and sublime expressiveness seem to be continuously vocalizing the great legends of Hamir Dev, the Rajput king, who ruled in the 13th century.

Hamir Dev belonged to the Chauhan dynasty and drew his lineage from Prithviraj Chauhan who enjoys a respectable place in the Indian history. During his 12 years' reign, Hamir Dev fought 17 battles and won 13 of them. He annexed Malwa, Abu and Mandalgarh and thus extended his kingdom to the chagrin of Delhi Sultan, Jalaluddin, who had misgivings about Hamir's intentions. Jalaluddin attacked Ranathambhor and had it under siege for several years. However, he had to return to Delhi unsuccessful.

Jalaluddin was assassinated by his nephew Allaluddin Khilji who then crowned himself as the new Sultan of Delhi. Muhammad Shah was instrumental in making this coup successful which earned him a basketful of privileges. Muhammad Shah was even allowed access to the harem as a result of which he soon built up a good rapport with its inmates.

Chimna was one of Allaudin's begums, but Allaudin never gave her as much attention as other begums of the harem received from him. He had inadvertently managed to antagonize her. To make things worse Chimna Begum saw a valiant soldier in Muhammad Shah and was extremely impressed by his courage and boldness. Soon the vindictive begum and the ambitious Muhammad Shah started a conspiracy to slay Allaudin. Their objective was to see Muhammad Shah as Sultan and the begum as queen. The conspiratorial plans somehow leaked out. Allaudin was enraged as he came to know of Muhammad Shah's intentions. To escape the fury of Allaudin, Muhammad Shah had to flee from Delhi along with his brother. He sought asylum in many nearby kingdom but no one was ready to stand up to the wrath of Allaudin.

Muhammad Shah approached Hamir Dev. The brave Rajput was moved by his humble pleading and misery and agreed to him shelter. Allaudin's ire was roused when he came to know of it. He immediately attacked the fort of Ranathambhor. The armies of Allaudin and Hamir Dev met in a battle on the banks of river Banas. The Rajputs had the initial victory. However, because of the personal feud between the Prime Minister and the Senapati (General-in-charge of the army) Hamir Dev's army got disorganized. The Prime Minister succeeded in getting the Senapati killed. Meanwhile, Allaudin reorganized his forces and made a renewed attack on the fort. Some unscrupulous officers of Hamir Dev, with Bhoj Dev as their leader, colluded with Allaudin and started giving him secret information about the fort. The war continued. The strong walls of the fort were strategically so situated that it was not possible to blow them down with gunpower, for the debris so created had already killed numerous soldiers of the Sultan in their futile attempt to break in to the fort. At last Allaudin sent a message to Hamir Dev saying that in case he was ready to hand over Muhammad Shah to him, he would go back to Delhi. Hamir Dev was too self respecting to make such an ignominious compromise. He sent back the messenger with the reply that when the Rajputs promised to protect someone, they even gave their lives for his safety. Muhammad Shah saw the hopelessness of the situation and conselled Hamir Dev to hand him over to Allaudin rather than fight such a long drawn-out war and suffer such an enormous loss of lives and resources. Allaudin's army was immense. He put a complete siege on the Ranathambhor fort. Bhoj Dev and his informers kept on supplying him information on the food of water situation inside the fort. The ill-fated war bended with the Sultan's legions emerging victorious. The female members of the Rajput kingdom committed jauhar and gave up lives on the pyres. Hamir Dev, himself, severed his head and put it in front of Lord Shiva's idol as an offering.

After the victory, Allaudin entered the fort. Wounded Muhammad Shah was brought to him.

"What is your last desire?" asked Allaudin. "To kill you and place Hamir's son on the throne of Ranathambhor", replied Muhammad Shah. Then he took out his dagger and committed suicide.

Allaudin, now, turned to Bhoj Dev and his other informers. There faces were keen with eagerness to receive the long awaited reward from the Sultan. On the countrary, Allaudin roared, "Shave of the heads of these traitors. They have not been loyal to their own king".

Within minutes, the heads of all his accomplices rolled on the ground. Allaudin's laughter reverberated against the walls of the fort.



Rana Sanga

The mantle of Rana Kumbha's greatness passed onto Maharana Sangram Singh. Rana Sanga, also known as Sangram Singh, was the rana (king) of Mewar, in present-day Rajasthan state of western India, from 1509 to 1527.

He brought Mewar to the peak of its prosperity and prominence, establishing it as the premier Rajput state.

With the collapse of power in Delhi, Rana Sanga emerged as the most powerful Hindu King in North India with a direct or indirect sway over the whole of Rajputana. His battles against the Lodhis and the Muslim rulers of Gujarat and Malwa are legendary.

He united the Rajput states and put up a strong unified defence against Babur's armies. It was a valiant struggle to protect the integrity of Hindu states. The Maharana lost the battle but not the principle of independence.

Like the illustrious Kshatriya Kings of ancient Bharat-varsha, the Maharanas exemplified the finest Hindu values and traditions in war and in peace: Honour and chivalry; selflessness and respect for humanity.

The pinnacle of prosperity, the heights of valour. Under the Mighty Sanga, Mewar reached its apex of prosperity and controlled, directly and indirectly, a large part of Rajputana.

Rana Sanga is the finest example of the Kshatriya King as the Protector, the Suryavanshi King whose focus was on consolidating and developing his state.

Though the power of Delhi was on the decline, Rana Sanga faced repeated invasions from the Muslim rulers of Delhi, Gujarat and Malwa. His powerful army engaged in battle over eighteen times with Muslim forces and the Maharana himself was battle-scarred : having lost an arm and eye, been crippled in one leg and suffered innumerable wounds. But his power and spirit remained indomitable.

In 1519 after Sultan Mahmud of Mandu was defeated and taken prisoner, Rana Sanga displayed the same chivalry and generosity which Rana Kumbha had demonstrated towards a defeated enemy. Mahmud was treated like a guest and his kingdom was restored by the Maharana who could have easily annexed it.

He too upon himself to unite the Rajput states into a confederacy. On February 1527 Rana Sanga led a combined Rajput force of over 200,000 men to drive Babur away. Rana Sanga's army engaged the Mughal force at the Battle of Khanwa.

In the Battle of Khanua in 1527, Rana Sanga's armies gained an initial advantage against Babur's forces. But the tides turned against the valiant Rajputs and Rana Sanga was himself wounded on the battlefield.

Babur's victory was his stepping stone to founding the Mughal Empire in India and in Rana Sanga's defeat the hopes of a Hindu revival were ruined.

Rana Sanga's loyalty to the Rajput code of chivalry and generosity is legendary. He is regarded as the last Hindu emperor of medieval India who could stand up for the principle of independence and 'rashtra' against the march of the Mughals.



Maharana Pratap

 Udaipur City Palace Udaipur remained the capital of Mewar after fall of Chittor until its accession in independent India. During the "Third Jauhar" these relations were not universally approbated. Mewar, which justly enjoys a unique position in the Rajput mind, held out and valiantly gave battle to Akbar. After a brave struggle, Mewar's chief citadel of Chittor finally fell to Akbar in 1568. The third (and last) Jauhar of Chittor transpired on this occasion. vWhen the fall of the citadel became imminent, the ladies of the fort committed collective self-immolation and the men sallied out of the fort to meet the invading Muslim army in a hopeless fight to an honorable death.

Prior to this event, Mewar's ruler, Rana Udai Singh II, had retired to the nearby hills, where he founded a new town Udaipur named it after himself. He was succeeded while in exile by his son Rana Pratap as head of the Sisodia clan. Even in exile, the Sisodias did not rest; under the able leadership of Rana Pratap Singh, they harassed the Mughal administrators of the land enough to cause them to make accommodatory overtures. Rana Pratap, a present-day Rajput icon, rebuffed every such overtures of friendship from Akbar and rallied an army to meet the Mughal forces. Some historians say that he was defeated at the battle of Haldighati but Mughals never invaded in Udaipur onJune 211576 but were forced to withdraw to the Aravalli ranges; however, he carried out a relentless guerilla struggle from his hideout in those hills, and never gave in to the Mughal power. On a social level Maharana was very disappointed with other rajputs of rajasthan who had given there daughters to Mughals such as Akbar and he banned all marriages of his rajput followers with this other group whom he did not consider rajputs anymore. By the time of his death, Rana Pratap Singh had reconquered nearly all of his kingdom from the Mughals, except for the fortress of Chittor and Mandal Garh. He died in 1597 CE. After Maharana's death, his son Amar Singh, continued the struggle for 18 years, and faced constant attacks from Mughals. He fought 17 wars with the Mughals. Finally he conditionally accepted them as rulers. At this time, a large chunk of Maharana Pratap's band of loyal Rajputs became disillusioned by the surrender and left Rajasthan. This group included Rathores, Deora Chauhans, Pariharas, Tomaras, Kacchwaha and Jhalas. They are called "Rors" and settled mostly in Haryana, with some in Uttar Pradesh. Until today they do not intermarry with other Rajputs but "gotra permitting" with other Rors only. Amar Singh entered into the peace treaty with the Mughals but on certain conditions:

1. Rana of Mewar shall not attend the Mughal court personally but the crown prince shall attend the court.
2. No daughter of Sisodias would be married to Mughals.
The treaty was signed by Rana Amar Singh and prince "Khurram" (later Shah Jahan) in 1615 CE at Gogunda. He thus regained control of his state as a vassal of the Mughals.

The Sisodias, rulers of Mewar, were famously the last Rajput dynasty to enter into an alliance with the Mughals. The Rajput states, thereafter, remained loyal to the Mughal Empire for over two centuries, until it was supplanted by the British Raj. Indeed, even as late as the early 19th century, Rajput courts rarely failed to formally affirm their loyalty to the (by now entirely powerless) Mughal Emperor in all their officialcommuniques and documents.

Authentic and good historical books on Mewar, Maharana Pratap and Survansh are written by Gujarati Author Harilal Upadhyay. Further information related to his novels can be found from his official cum tribute websie http://www.harilalupadhyay.org


Maharaja Jaswant Singh

In the Battle of Dharmatpur, Jaswant Singh opposed Aurangzeb. The battle was fought on 15th April 1658, fifteen miles from Ujjain. Jaswant could have attacked Aurangzeb but he allowed Murad's armies to join Aurangzeb. He was desirous of beating both Mughal princes at once. This delay allowed Aurangzeb to win over the Mughal general, Kasim Khan, who was sent by Shah Jahan to help Jaswant Singh. Kasim Khan defected as soon as the war started but 30,000 rajputs of Jaswant decided that they would not leave the field. Some prominent generals in Maharaja's army were Mukund Singh Hara of Kotah and Bundi, Dayal Das Jhala, Arjun Gaur of Rajgarh in Ajmer province and Ratan Singh Rathore of Ratlam. Jaswant attacked both Aurangzeb and Murad and they barely escaped. According to James Tod in Annals and Antiquities of Rajasthan: Ten thousand Muslims fell in the onset, which cost seventeen hundred Rathores, besides Guhilotes, Haras, Gaurs, and some of every clan of Rajwarra. Aurangzeb and Murad only escaped because their days were not yet numbered. Notwithstanding the immense superiority of the imperial princes, aided by numerous artillery served by Frenchmen, night alone put a stop to the contest of science, numbers, and artillery, against Rajput courage. Finally the unequal contest ended and Aurangzeb named the place of victory Fatehabad. In this battle Durga Das Rathore changed four horses and lost about half a dozen swords (they broke due to intense fighting) and he finally fell down half dead. Maharajah ordered him to be carried away.

Rajputs, even in the moment of battle, worshipped the rising sun, and they sealed there faith in there blood; and none more liberally than the brave Haras of Kotah and Bundi. . . The annals of no nation on earth can furnish such an example, as an entire family, six royal brothers of Kotah, stretched on the field, and all but one in death. Of all the deeds of heroism performed on this day, those of Ratan Singh Rathore of Ratlam, by universal consent, are pre-eminent, and are wreathed into immortal rhyme by the bard in the Raso Rao Ratan.



Durga Das Rathore

When Jaswant Singh Rathore died he had no son and this gave Aurangzeb a chance to appoint a Muslim as the ruler of Marwar. This upset Rathore Rajputs a lot. Two of Jaswant Singh's queens were pregnant when he died. One queen gave birth to Ajit Singh and other to Dalathamban. After Ajit's birth, Rathore generals, chief among them was Durga Das Rathore (a Karnot Rathore) went to Delhi along with the queens and the infants, and asked Aurangzeb that crown of Marwar should be given to Ajit Singh. Aurangzeb was very cunning and he had no intention of handing over the throne of Marwar. He suggested that Ajit should grow up in his harem but internally he wanted to kill them all. Durga Das sensed this and they smuggled Ajit Singh out of Delhi to the outskirts of the city. When Mughal army came to capture them in Delhi, Durga Das and his men attacked the Mughals and started riding out of Delhi. Raghunandan Bhati and others soaked the streets of Delhi in crimson by flowing the blood of Mughal pursuers. There were about three hundred Rajputs with Durga Das and there were thousands of pursuing Mughals. Every so often 15 - 20 Rajputs would fall behind attack the Mughal pursuers and in the process get themselves killed but it allowed the forward party to create some distance between Ajit and the Mughals. This continued till the evening by which time the Mughals had given up and Durga Das was left with just seven men out of three hundred he started with and reached Jaipur along with Ajit Singh. Thereby started the 30 year Rajput rebellion against Aurangzeb. Mewar and Marwar forces combined together and almost killed Aurangzeb when he was trapped in the mountains of Rajasthan but the Mewar king out of magnanimity allowed Aurangzeb to escape. All the trade routes were plundered by Rajputs and they started looting various treasuries of Rajasthan and Gujarat. To crush them Aurangzeb sent many expeditions but no success. These expeditions and drying up of revenue from trade routes running through Rajasthan had severe effect on his resources. In addition the lion of Maharashtra, Shivaji, had freed almost all of Maharashtra and was at constant war with Aurangzeb. Shivaji had some Rajput ancestry. Finally, on his death-bed Aurangzeb complained that his life had been a complete failure.


Amar singh Rathore

A historical legendary character whose saga of bravery is sung around Agra region of India till date. He served Mughals there at Agra for a short period after being denied his right of inheritance at Nagaur in Rajasthan.

He was the famous fighter who jumped from Agra Fort with his horse.

Amar singh rathore proved this saying appropriately by killing 100 soldiers of auranzgeb alone single handtedly. In auranzgeb court lesser kings had to come daily so as to give their attendance..But amar singh didn't came for some days,,when one day he came auranzgeb asked him why u were absent for so long..Amar singh replied kuch kaam pad gaya tha (Some work had occurred), Auranzgeb told him u are kafir (Non believer of god), At hearing this Amar singh charged with his sword at auranzgeb,,poet and aurangzeb ander ke cabin mein ghoos gaye..Tab amar singh aur auranzgeb ke soldiers mein fight hue (Fight occurred between Amar singh rathore and soldiers).. Auranzgeb at that time asked poet what will happen to Amar singh when he was fighting..Poet replied huzor chinta mat loo (Don't take tension),,ek sher(Lion) 100 Badeahon(Wolves) ke liye more than sufficient hota hai.. Surely enough Amar singh rathore killed all of them..

But he was tricked into by his brother in law,,and killed when he was putting his face out of the window, When his brother in law went with amar singh head kept in plate to impress auranzgeb, at that time auranzgeb beacame very unhappy and told him that u think that will make me happy u fool.instead my heart goes and u have killed such a great warrior cheating him . At that time poet(Bard) said to auranzgeb that one day u had asked why rajput kingdom went away. Thats the reason because of it, they are not united themselves.



Rani Padmini

 In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Sultanate of Delhi - the kingdom set up by the invaders was nevertheless growing in power. The Sultans made repeated attack on Mewad on one pretext or the other. Here we may recollect the story of Rani Padmani who was the pretext for Allah-ud-din Khilji's attack on Chittod. In those days Chittod was under the Rule of King Ratansen, a brave and noble warrior-king. Apart, from being a loving husband and a just ruler, Ratansen was also a patron of the arts. In his court were many talented People one of whom was a musician named Raghav Chetan. But unknown to anybody, Raghav Chetan was also a sorcerer. He used his evil talents to run down his rivals and unfortunately for him was caught red-handed in his dirty act of arousing evil spirits.

On hearing this King Ratansen was furious and he banished Raghav Chetan from his kingdom after blackening his face with face and making him ride a donkey. This harsh Punishment earned king Ratansen an uncompromising enemy. Sulking after his humiliation, Raghav Chetan made his way towards Delhi with -the aim of trying to incite the Sultan of Delhi Ala-ud-din Khilji to attack Chittor.

On approaching Delhi, Raghav Chetan settled down in one of the forests nearby Delhi which the Sultan used to frequent for hunting deer. One day on hearing the Sultan's hunt party entering the forest, Raghav-Chetan started playing a melodious tone on his flute. When the alluring notes of Raghav-Chetan flute reached the Sultan's party they were surprised as to who could be playing a flute in such a masterly way in a forlorn forest.

The Sultan despatched his soldiers to fetch the person and when Raghav-Chetan was brought before him, the Sultan Ala-ud-din Khilji asked him to come to his court at Delhi. The cunning Raghav-Chetan asked the king as to why he wants to have an ordinary musician like himself when there were many other beautiful objects to be had. Wondering what Raghav-Chetan meant, Ala-ud-din asked him to clarify. Upon being told of Rani Padmini's beauty, Ala-ud-din's lust was aroused and immediately on returning to his capital he gave orders to his army to march on Chittor.

On being persuaded by her husband Rana Ratansen, Rani Padmini consented to allow Ala-ud-din to see her only in a mirror. On the word being sent to Ala-ud-din that Padmini would see him he came to the fort with his selected his best warriors who secretly made a careful examination of the fort's defences on their way to the Palace.

But to his dismay, on reaching Chittor, Ala-ud-din found the fort to be heavily defended. Desperate to have a look at the legendary beauty of Padmini, he sent word to King Ratansen that he looked upon Padmini as his sister and wanted to meet her. On hearing this, the unsuspecting Ratansen asked Padmini to see the 'brother'. But Padmini was more wordly-wise and she refused to meet the lustful Sultan personally.

But on being persuaded she consented to allow Ala-ad-din to see her only in a mirror. On the word being sent to Ala-ad-din that Padmini would see him he came to the fort with his selected his best warriors who secretly made a careful examination of the fort's defences on their way to the Palace.

On seeing Padmini, the lustful 'brother' decided that he should secure Padmini for himself. While returning to his camp, Ala-ad-din was accompanied for some way by King Ratansen. Taking this opportunity, the wily Sultan treacherously kidnapped Ratansen and took him as a prisoner into his camp.

Ala--ad-din showed his true colours and demanded , that Padmini be given to him and in return Ratnanen was to get his liberty. Word was sent into the palace about the Sultan's demand.

The Rajput generals decided to beat the Sultan at his own game and sent back word that Padmini would be given to Ala-ad-din the next morning. On the following day at the crack of dawn, one hundred and fifty palakies (covered cases in which royal ladies were carried in medieveal times) left the fort and made their way towards Ala-ad-din's camps The Palkies stopped before the tent where king Ratnasen was being held prisoner. Seeing that the Palkies had come from Chittor; and thinking that they had brought along with them his queen, king Ratansen was mortified. But to his surprise from the palkies came out, not his queen and her women servants but fully armed solders, who quickly freed Ratansen and galloped away towards Chittor on horses grabbed from Ala-ad-din's stables.

On hearing that his designs had been frustrated, the lustful Sultan was furious and ordered his army to storm Chittor. But hard as they tried the Sultans army could not break into the fort. Then Ala-ud-din decided to lay siege to the fort. The siege was a long drawn one and gradually supplied within the fort were depleted. Finally King Ratnasen gave orders that the Rajputs would open the gates and fight to finish with the besieging troops. On hearing of this decision, Padmini decided that with their men-folk going into the unequal struggle with the Sultan's army in which they were sure to perish, the women of Chittor had either to commit suicides or face dishonour at the hands of the victorious enemy.

The choice was in favour of suicide through Jauhar. A huge pyre was lit and followed by their queen, all the women of Chittor jumped into the flames and deceived the lustful enemy waiting outside. With their womenfolk dead, the men of Chittor had nothing to live for. Their charged out of the fort and fought on furiously with the vastly Powerful array of the Sultan, till all of them perished. After this phyrrhic victory the Sultan's troops entered the fort only to be confronted with ashes and burnt bones of the women whose honour they were going to violate to satisfy their lust.

These women who committed Jauhar (Johar) had to perish but their memory has been kept alive till today by bards and songs which glorify their act which was right in those days and circumstances. Thus a halo of honour is given to their supreme sacrifice.



Rani Durgavati

Rani Durgavati was born on 5th October 1524 A.D. in the family of famous Chandel emperor Keerat Rai. She was born at the fort of Kalanjar (Banda, U.P.). Chandel Dynasty is famous in the Indian History for the valiant king Vidyadhar who repulsed the attacks of Mehmood Gaznavi. His love for sculptures is shown in the world famed temples of Khajuraho and Kalanjar fort. Rani Durgavati's achievements further enhanced the glory of her ancestral tradition of courage and patronage of arts.

In 1542, she was married to Dalpatshah, the eldest son of king Sangramshah of Gond Dynasty. Chandel and Gond dynasties got closer as a consequence of this marriage and that was the reason Keerat Rai got the help of Gonds and his son-in-law Dalpatshah at the time of invasion of Shershah Suri in which Shershah Suri died.

She gave birth to a son in 1545 A.D. who was named Vir Narayan. Dalpatshah died in about 1550 A.D. As Vir Narayan was too young at that time, Durgavati took the reins of the Gond kingdom in her hands. Two ministers Adhar Kayastha and Man Thakur helped the Rani in looking after the administration successfully and effectively. Rani moved her capital to Chauragarh in place of Singaurgarh. It was a fort of strategic importance situated on the Satpura hill range.

After the death of Shershah, Sujat Khan captured the Malwa zone and was succeeded by his son Bajbahadur in 1556 A.D. (Bajbahadur is famous in history for his tumultus love affair with Rani Roopmati). After ascending to the throne, he attacked Rani Durgavati but the attack was repulsed with heavy losses to his army. This defeat effectively silenced Bajbahadur and the victory brought name and fame for Rani Durgavati. In the year 1562 Akbar vanquished the Malwa ruler Baj Bahadur and annexed the Malwa with Mughul dominion. Consequently, the state boundary of Rani touched the Mughal kingdom. Rani's contemporary Mughul Subedar was Abdul Mazid Khan, an ambitious man who vanquished Ramchandra, the ruler of Rewa. Prosperity of Rani Durgavati's state lured him and he invaded Rani's state after taking permission from Mughul emperor. This plan of Mughul invasion was the result of expansionism and imperialism of Akbar. When Rani heard about the attack by Asaf Khan she decide to defend her kingdom with all her might although her minister Adhar pointed out the strength of Mughal forces. Rani maintained that it was better to die respectfully than to live a disgraceful life. To fight a defensive battle, she went to Narrai situated between a hilly range on one side and two rivers Gaur and Narmada on the other side. It was an unequal battle with trained soldiers and modern weapons in multitude on one side and a few untrained soldiers with old weapons on the other side. Her Fauzdar Arjun Daswas killed in the battle and Rani decided to lead the defence herself. As the enemy entered the valley, soldiers of Rani attacked them. Both sides lost some men but Rani was victorious in this battle. She chased the Mughul army and came out of the valley.

At this stage Rani reviewed her strategy with her counsellors. She wanted to attack the enemy in the night to enfeeble them but her lieutenants did not accept her suggestion. By next morning Asaf khan had summoned big guns. Rani rode on her elephant Sarman and came for the battle. Her son Vir Narayan also took part in this battle. He forced Mughul army to move back three times but at last he got wounded and had to retire to a safe place. In the course of battle Rani also got injured near her ear with an arrow. Another arrow pierced her neck and she lost her consciousness. On regaining consciousness she perceived that defeat was imminent. Her Mahout advised her to leave the battlefield but she refused and took out her dagger and killed herself. Her martyrdom day (24th June 1564) is even today commomorated as "Balidan Diwas". Rani Durgavati's was a personality with varied facets. She was valiant, beautiful and brave and also a great leader with administrative skills. Her self-respect forced her to fight till death rather than surrender herself to her enemy.



Ram Singh Pathania

The last battle was fought in the mid-19th century against the British by the great Ram Singh Pathania for his King who was still a minor. After fighting a Guerilla war against the British, he made Brigadier Wheeler assemble a considerable force on the dhaula dhar range against him. Ram Singh Pathania fought the British many times in pitched battles, but they could not defeat him, and there were heavy losses on both sides, with the British losing many officers. Eventually the British keeping in tune with their tradition of treachery realised that it would not be possible to capture this Brave Rajput Prince by military means. They bribed a Brahmin to tell them where he could be found alone and unarmed, so that they would ambush him. Soon he was captured while he was praying on the banks of the Ravi river without his weapons, near the Shahpurkandi Fortress. Legend has it that before he could be overcome by the soldiers he managed to kill some of them with just his praying tool. Some historians say that he was betrayed by the Raja's of Jammu and Guler and handed over to the British. He was sentenced to life imprisonment beyond the high seas, and sent to Rangoon (Burma). He died there on 11th November, 1856, he was just 23. The Kingdom was annexed by the British soon after this.

Some say that Ram Singh Pathania was the first freedom fighter of India, who stood against the British might and fought bravely against them, but sadly not many people know about him outside his state. He was a true Rajput, who followed the valorous tradition of his Brave ancestors till the end.

Every year a fair honoring his name is held in the dhaula dhar ranges of Himachal Pradesh, where the Sword and Armour of the Lionheart Ram Singh Pathania is displayed.

Tags:- MOST FAMOUS PERSONALITIES OF RAJPUTANA    ALL  RAJPUT RULERS



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About Adamay Singh Parmar Rajput

Adamay Singh Parmar is a part time blogger.He is 14 years old boy.He is studying in MHS DAV Cent.Public school Akhnoor.He loves to write about rajputs and rajputana.He is really very passionate about his work.
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