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History Of Jammu And Kashmir

History

Hari Singh had ascended the throne of Kashmir in 1925 and was the reigning monarch at the conclusion of British rule in the subcontinent in 1947. One of the conditions of the partition of India imposed by Britain was that the rulers of princely states would have the right to opt for either Pakistan or India or remain independent. In 1947, Kashmir's population was 77% Muslim and it shared a boundary with both Dominion of Pakistan and Union of India.
On 22 October 1947, locals and tribesmen backed by Pakistan invaded Kashmir. The Maharaja initially fought back but appealed for assistance to the Governor-General Louis Mountbatten, who agreed on the condition that the ruler accede to India. Maharaja Hari Singh signed the Instrument of Accession on 26 October 1947, which was accepted by the Governor General of India the next day. Once the Instrument of Accession was signed, Indian soldiers entered Kashmir with orders to evict the raiders. India took the matter to the United Nations. The UN resolution asked both India and Pakistan to vacate the areas they had occupied and hold a referendum under UN observation. The holding of this plebiscite, which India initially supported, was dismissed by India because the 1952 elected Constituent assembly of Jammu and Kashmir voted in favour of confirming the Kashmir region's accession to India. The United Nations Military Observer Group in India and Pakistan (UNMOGIP) was deployed to supervise the ceasefire between India and Pakistan. UNMOGIP's functions were to investigate complaints of ceasefire violations and submit findings to each party and to the U.N. secretary-general. Under the terms of the ceasefire, it was decided that both armies would withdraw and a plebiscite would be held in Kashmir to give Kashmiris the right to self-determination. The primary argument for the continuing debate over the ownership of Kashmir is that India did not hold the promised plebiscite. In fact, neither side has adhered to the U.N. resolution of 13 August 1948; while India chose not to hold the plebiscite, Pakistan failed to withdraw its troops from Kashmir as was required under the resolution. India gives the following reasons for not holding the plebiscite:
  • United Nations Security Council Resolution 47 on Kashmir was passed by UNSC under chapter VI of UN Charter, which are non binding and have no mandatory enforceability. In March 2001,the then Secretary-General of the United NationsKofi Annan during his visit to Indian and Pakistan,remarked that Kashmir resolutions are only advisory recommendations and comparing with those on East Timor and Iraq was like comparing apples and oranges, since those resolutions were passed under chapter VII, which make it enforceable by UNSC. In 2003,then Pakistan President Pervez Musharrafannounced that Pakistan was willing to back off from demand for UN resolutions for Kashmir.
  • Moreover, India alleges that Pakistan failed to fulfill the pre-conditions by withdrawing its troops from the Kashmir region as was required under the same U.N. resolution of 13 August 1948 which discussed the plebiscite.
  • India has consistently told that UN resolutions are now completely irrelevant and Kashmir dispute is a bilateral issue and it has to be resolved under 1972 Simla Agreement and 1999 Lahore Declaration. Moreover, in November 2010, United Nations excluded Jammu and Kashmir from its annual list of unresolved international disputes under the observation of theUnited Nations Security Council.
  • The 1948–49 U.N. resolutions can no longer be applied, according to India, because of changes in the original territory, withsome parts "having been handed over to China by Pakistan and demographic changes having been effected in Azad Kashmir and the Northern Areas.
  • Another reason for the abandonment of the referendum is because demographic changes after 1947 have been effected in Pakistan-administered Kashmir, as generations of Pakistani individuals non-native to the region have been allowed to take residence in Pakistan-administered Kashmir. Furthermore, India alleges that in Jammu & Kashmir state of India, the demographics of the Kashmir Valley have been altered after separatist militants coerced 250,000 Kashmiri Hindus to leave the region.
  • India cites the 1952 elected Constituent assembly of Jammu and Kashmir, which voted in favour of confirming accession to India. New Delhi says that since Kashmiris have voted in successive national elections in India, there is no need for a plebiscite.
In response Pakistan holds that:
  • The popular Kashmiri insurgency demonstrates that the Kashmiri people no longer wish to remain within India. Pakistan suggests that this means that Kashmir either wants to be with Pakistan or independent.
  • According to the two-nation theory, which is one of the theories that is cited for the partition that created India and Pakistan, Kashmir should have been with Pakistan, because it has a Muslim majority.
  • India has shown disregard to the resolutions of the UN Security Council and the United Nations Commission in India and Pakistan by failing to hold a plebiscite to determine the future allegiance of the state.
  • Pakistan has noted the widespread use of extrajudicial killings in Indian-administered Kashmir carried out by Indian security forces while claiming they were caught up in encounters with militants. These encounters are commonplace in Indian-administered Kashmir. The encounters go largely uninvestigated by the authorities, and the perpetrators are spared criminal prosecution. Human rights organisations have strongly condemned Indian troops for widespread abuses and murder of civilians while accusing these civilians of being militants.
Diplomatic relations between India and Pakistan soured for many other reasons and eventually resulted in three further wars in Kashmir the Indo-Pakistani War of 1965, theIndo-Pakistan War of 1971 and the Kargil War in 1999. India has control of 60% of the area of the former Princely State of Jammu and Kashmir (JammuKashmir Valley, andLadakh); Pakistan controls 30% of the region (Gilgit–Baltistan and Azad Kashmir). China occupied 10% (Aksai Chin and Trans-Karakoram Tract) of the state in 1962.
The Chenab formula was a compromise proposed in the 1960s, in which the Kashmir valley and other Muslim-dominated areas north of the Chenab river would go to Pakistan, and Jammu and other Hindu-dominated regions would go to India.[51]
The eastern region of the erstwhile princely state of Kashmir has also been beset with a boundary dispute. In the late 19th- and early 20th centuries, although some boundary agreements were signed between Great Britain, Tibet, Afghanistan and Russia over the northern borders of Kashmir, China never accepted these agreements, and the official Chinese position did not change with the communist revolution in 1949. By the mid-1950s the Chinese army had entered the northeast portion of Ladakh.
By 1956–57 they had completed a military road through the Aksai Chin area to provide better communication between Xinjiang and western Tibet. India's belated discovery of this road led to border clashes between the two countries that culminated in the Sino-Indian war of October 1962. China has occupied Aksai Chin since 1962 and, in addition, an adjoining region, the Trans-Karakoram Tract was ceded by Pakistan to China in 1963.
For intermittent periods between 1957, when the state approved its own Constitution, and the death of Sheikh Abdullah in 1982, the state had alternating spells of stability and discontent. In the late 1980s, however, simmering discontent over the high-handed policies of the Union Government and allegations of the rigging of the 1987 assembly elections[54] triggered a violent uprising which was backed by Pakistan.
Since then, the region has seen a prolonged, bloody conflict between separatists and the Indian Army, both of whom have been accused of widespread human rights abuses, including abductions, massacres, rapes and lootings. The army has officially denied these allegations. However, violence in the state has been on the decline since 2004 with the peace process between India and Pakistan. The situation has become increasingly tense politically in recent years.

Administrative divisions

Jammu and Kashmir consists of three divisions: Jammu, Kashmir Valley and Ladakh, and is further divided into 22 districts.[69] TheSiachen Glacier, although under Indian military control, does not lie under the administration of the state of Jammu and Kashmir.KishtwarRambanReasiSambaBandiporaGanderbalKulgam and Shopian are newly formed districts, and their areas are included with those of the districts from which they were formed.[69]

RegionNameHeadquartersArea (km²)Population
2001 Census
Population
2011 Census
JammuKathua DistrictKathua2,651550,084615,711
Jammu DistrictJammu3,0971,343,7561,526,406
Samba DistrictSamba245,016318,611
Udhampur DistrictUdhampur4,550475,068555,357
Reasi DistrictReasi268,441314,714
Rajouri DistrictRajouri2,630483,284619,266
Poonch DistrictPoonch1,674372,613476,820
Doda DistrictDoda11,691320,256409,576
Ramban DistrictRamban180,830283,313
Kishtwar DistrictKishtwar190,843231,037
Jammu DivisionJammu26,2934,430,1915,350,811
KashmirAnantnag DistrictAnantnag3,984734,5491,069,749
Kulgam DistrictKulgam437,885423,181
Pulwama DistrictPulwama1,398441,275570,060
Shopian DistrictShopian211,332265,960
Budgam DistrictBudgam1,371629,309755,331
Srinagar DistrictSrinagar2,228990,5481,250,173
Ganderbal DistrictGanderbal211,899297,003
Bandipora DistrictBandipora316,436385,099
Baramulla DistrictBaramulla4,588853,3441,015,503
Kupwara DistrictKupwara2,379650,393875,564
Kashmir Valley DivisionSrinagar15,9485,476,9706,907,622
LadakhKargil DistrictKargil14,036119,307143,388
Leh DistrictLeh45,110117,232147,104
Ladakh DivisionLeh59,146236,539290,492
Total101,38710,143,70012,548,925


TAGS:-History of jammu and kashmir,hari singh kashmir history royal clans of jammu full history of jaamu and kashmir all rajputs of jammu



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About ADAMAY SINGH PARMAR

Adamay Singh Parmar is a part time blogger.He is 14 years old boy.He is studying in MHS DAV Cent.Public school Akhnoor.He loves to write about rajputs and rajputana.He is really very passionate about his work.
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